Sign up for more inspiring photos, stories, and special offers from National Geographic. Kennedy managed to name Marshall to the position through a recess appointment, which the Senate confirmed the following year. It'll be a historic event when the first Black, South Asian and female vice president takes her oath from the first Latina justice, using Thurgood Marshall's Bible. Kamala Harris, 56 was sworn in as the 49th vice president of the United States today by associate Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor using two Bibles that hold great personal significance for her. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Vice President-elect Kamala Harris will be sworn into office by Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor on a bible that once belonged to first the African American to serve on the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall, a source familiar with the plans told The Hill. Vice President-elect Kamala Harris will be sworn in with a Bible that belonged to Thurgood Marshall. A black-footed ferret that died more than 30 years ago has been cloned using preserved cells, which could help inject diversity into the inbred, endangered population. He argued 32 cases before the Supreme Court, winning 29 of them, and participated in hundreds of other cases in lower courts nationwide. Republican presidents Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. The two have worked together as prosecutors. To uphold school segregation would be tantamount to keeping Black people in near-slavery, Marshall said in oral arguments. From ‘Herbie the Love Bug’ to punch buggy, the Beetle remains iconic in Mexico, ‘It really is like flying.’ Explore wild skating on nature’s ice, The legendary community that fought for its freedom in Jamaica, Why this salty Massachusetts coastal town hooks artists, Families are leading a new wave for Black travelers, Winter is prime time for watching bald eagles—here’s how, As Lunar New Year approaches, many Asians worry about future journeys, Want dreamy winter photos? Over the years, Marshall continued to champion the equal protections he had insisted on as a civil rights lawyer, supporting individual rights and affirmative action. State graduate and professional schools were the starting point as it was easier to demonstrate there were no comparable alternatives for Black students to receive the specialized education they offered. Then, in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson named Marshall the first Black solicitor general, designated to represent the federal government in Supreme Court cases. Harris called Marshall "one of my heroes and inspirations" in her memoir. And what better place to do that, I thought, than at Thurgood Marshall's alma mater?" Marshall and his colleagues planned to use the precedents to strike at segregation in a much more controversial arena: public elementary and high schools. Has the electric car’s moment arrived at last? The vice president-elect said in a video posted to Twitter that she viewed Marshall as “one of the main reasons I wanted to be a … In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall attacked the longstanding doctrine established in the Supreme Court’s 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling, which allowed states to exclude people from public facilities because of their race, provided they had access to a “separate but equal” facility. Years of archaeological research now suggest that Neolithic Britons lugged massive elements of the iconic monument from far-flung reaches of the island. All Rights Reserved. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! He was survived by his second wife and their two sons. He supported the rights of criminal defendants and defended the right to privacy. Why Do 9 Justices Serve on the Supreme Court. The great-grandson of an enslaved person, Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. Though Marshall regularly appeared before the Supreme Court, no Black man, and no person of color, had ever been nominated to serve as a justice. On June 13, 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to fill the seat of retiring Supreme Court Justice Tom Clark. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit, Congratulating Each Other, … The rebels, who ...read more, On October 2, 1985, actor Rock Hudson, 59, becomes the first major U.S. celebrity to die of complications from AIDS. The decision served as a great impetus for the civil rights movement and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations. How the world’s largest rhino population dropped by 70 percent—in a decade, The unintended environmental benefit of Cuba's isolation, Same force behind Texas deep freeze could drive prolonged heat waves. The United States has reached a grim milestone—the moment when half a million Americans have lost their lives to the coronavirus. As chief counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the 1940s and ’50s, Marshall was the architect and executor of the legal strategy that ended the era of official racial segregation. Bush all appointed justices with conservative legal views, and Marshall became known for his eloquent dissents, which criticized his colleagues’ failures to fully address racial and other injustices and pointed out the real-world ramifications of their opinions. Thurgood Marshall poses in his New York residence on September 11, 1962, after the Senate confirmation of his nomination to the U.S. Court of Appeals. Can carbon capture make flying more sustainable? Marshall died of heart failure at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, on January 24, 1993, at the age of 84. Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first Black Supreme Court justice, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/thurgood-marshall-sworn-in. During his barrier-breaking years on the Supreme Court, Marshall continued to advocate for civil and human rights. His surprise departure, rather than staying on for a lifetime appointment, was seen by many as evidence of his frustration with the institution’s increasing conservatism. “To fail to do so is to ensure that America will forever remain a divided society.”. At one hearing, South Carolina Senator Olin Johnston argued that Marshall was unqualified to preside over the general business of a courtroom because of his focus on civil rights. Unauthorized use is prohibited. READ MORE: Black History Milestones: Timeline. (Why the Supreme Court has only nine justices.). During his 24-year tenure on the Supreme Court, Marshall participated in more than 3,600 cases; he dissented in more than one in four—including more than 150 dissents to the court’s refusal to hear death penalty appeals. In the process, he traveled between 50,000 and 75,000 miles a year, crisscrossing the nation to oversee as many as 450 cases at a time. At Howard, Marshall was mentored by the law school’s then vice-dean, Charles Hamilton Houston, a prominent Black attorney and founding member of the National Bar Association who encouraged Marshall to use the law as a tool to create an equal society. Here’s how it could be done. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the ideology of the Supreme Court, Marshall found his liberal views increasingly in the minority. (Jim Crow laws created 'slavery by another name.'). This single number could reshape our climate future. Civil Rights,” Marshall was one of the architects of the civil rights movement—a passionately progressive attorney who helped end school segregation. Sentenced to death, but innocent: These are stories of justice gone wrong. The next great whiskey trail is not where you think it is. This vibrant sanctuary underscores the stakes. Known as “Mr. In 1991, Marshall retired just hours after delivering a dissent in a death penalty case. Bush replaced him with Clarence Thomas, a conservative Black justice. On June 13, 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court, calling the move “the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man and the right place.” The Senate confirmed Marshall two months later on August 30, 1967, and he took his seat when the Court session opened October 2. The Warsaw Uprising ends on October 2, 1944, with the surrender of the surviving Polish rebels to German forces. Although Marshall joined the Supreme Court as part of a liberal majority under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court had changed by the time he had gained the seniority to write significant opinions. Stereotypes have fueled a tourism boom in Europe’s icy North. Chief Justice Earl Warren swears in Thurgood Marshall, the first Black justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Hudson’s death raised public awareness of the epidemic, which until that time had been ignored by many in the mainstream as a “gay plague.” Hudson, born Leroy ...read more, On October 2, 1941, the Germans begin their surge to Moscow, led by the 1st Army Group and Gen. Fedor von Bock. He recruited Marshall, then a young attorney, to undertake the first test case under the strategy. Visit Insider's homepage for more stories. In this position, he again successfully argued cases before the Supreme Court, this time on behalf of the U.S. government. Landmark cases such as 1973's Roe v. Wade were passed under his tenure. After you get a COVID-19 vaccine, what can you do safely? But can we make room for them? On Tuesday Harris tweeted, "When I raise my right hand and take the oath of office tomorrow, I carry with me two heroes who'd speak up for the voiceless and help those in … Harris chose Sotomayor for the task, according to a person familiar with the decision. In 1936, he joined the legal division of the NAACP, of which Houston was director, and two years later succeeded his mentor in the organization’s top legal post. Harris has credited both justices as inspirations for her career. Marshall and his colleagues fought battle after battle as states defied the new law of the land—closing entire public school systems, creating charter schools, and even rioting rather than allow Black students to attend alongside white ones. In 1936 Marshall went to work for the NAACP full-time. NASA’s Perseverance rover has just landed on Mars, Watch as NASA attempts a daring Mars rover landing, Million-year-old mammoth teeth yield world's oldest DNA, Why mapping Mars completely changed how we see it, How these feuding map-makers shaped our fascination with Mars, Earth’s mountains may have mysteriously stopped growing for a billion years. Decades before Thurgood Marshall was sworn into the U.S. Supreme Court on October 2, 1967, the man who would become its first Black justice had already transformed American law. Grizzlies are coming back. 3-ton parts of Stonehenge may have been carried from earlier monuments, How ancient astronomy mixed science with mythology, This ivory relic reveals the colonial power dynamic between Benin and Portugal. “But it cannot build bridges. Eventually, they hoped, segregation of all types would crumble under its own impracticability. Can things change? Harris To Be Sworn In By Justice Sotomayor, Holding Thurgood Marshall's Bible, At Inauguration "Our nation is stronger because of his powerful … On October 2, 1967, Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as a United States Supreme Court justice.Long before President Lyndon Johnson appointed him the first African American Supreme Court justice, Marshall had established himself as the nation’s leading legal civil rights advocate.. George E.C. Bringing Black people into mainstream American life “should be a state interest of the highest order,” Marshall wrote. Marshall attended a segregated high school in Baltimore and Lincoln University, a historically Black university near Oxford, Pennsylvania. Russian peasants in the path of Hitler’s army employ a “scorched-earth” policy. Marshall grew up during the so-called Jim Crow era, the century from the end of the Civil War until 1968 when state laws enshrined—and the Supreme Court upheld—racial discrimination and segregation in nearly every walk of life. She was among the plaintiffs in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case—led by Thurgood Marshall—in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregated schools to be unconstitutional. Yet Marshall’s tenure is perhaps best remembered for his stirring dissent against his increasingly conservative colleagues’ dismantling from the mid-1970s through the 1980s of the equal-protection laws he had championed. 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