This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Developing English in development contexts, Achieving quality in education for all, irrespective of the medium of education, Balancing language needs and provision for the teaching-learning of English and, Combating linguistically defined social stratification and. In H.Coleman (ed. This report describes the consultation process and analyses the findings. When two or more languages exchange or get in touch with each other it causes conversion. unfavorably presuming that more languages will amount to learners’ Case studies of organisation of English language teaching in, public-sector universities in Pakistan. This implies, of course, that the languages offered in educational institutions should be diversified and. Learning English can help you meet new people. This is critical because which language to teach, when, how, and where, has been an ongoing challenge for policy-makers as well as immediate end-users. This article discusses sociocultural and other theoretical aspects of the language-in-education debate in the light of their practical implications for language policy and teacher education in linguistically diverse school settings. The findings reveal hat language teachers come across several challenges in assessment. It is being spoken by half of the population of the world at present. Language and Education in Cambodia, Pit Chamnan and Audrey Cornish 3. Sustaining a project, Marlyn P. Marpaung and Tim Kirk 20. Considering the dividing role of English in education, this paper concludes the need for empowering Urdu and other local languages, and reducing differences in English instruction to provide equal access to the English language for students in different schools. Phillipson (2009) claims that English is no longer a foreign language in Europe. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in the present study. This has led to, a situation whereby the majority of school and university graduates fr. Project funding included staff and counterpart development through, training courses in the UK, the provision of r, and the development of learning materials and a self-access centre. The Recolonisation of the African, Hold your courses: Language education, language choice, Development and education. K, for Educational Development, Aga Khan University. confusion. fraught with several challenges and limitations. In the first stage, a surv, provision for the teaching-learning of English was conducted in a nationwide, sample of public sector universities. English is a very important language and it has been incorporated into the learning curriculum of many schools and other learning institutions all over the world. Realizing the importance, recently, the Minister of Indian Railways, Laloo Prasad Yadav, demands teaching of English language in schools. Case study of pneumonia in child Can i do my dissertation on anything. Why projects fail, David R. Hall 21. While the English language fulfils people’s These, and similar challenges abound in the majority of African countries and many other, et al. Research r. on English, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan. and J.Z.Spade (eds. The present study aims to explore the challenges and to suggest solutions to improve English learning and teaching in rural primary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. (2002:327-328) identify at least four kinds: the socio-economic development of the country, In Pakistan, English is viewed mainly as the language for development at both, the individual and national levels. The Centr, was given a building by the university authorities; this was r, project funds. The paper presents pertinent implications. Actual English teaching practices appear illusory, as direct and Next, I briefly, examine issues and challenges in the teaching-learning of English, such as the, possible consequences of current language policy on the literacy level of childr. In this section, I will report the findings of a research study, commissioned by the National Committee on English and funded by the Higher, Education Commission as part of its ELT r. The objectives of the study were two-fold: sample of general and professional universities in Pakistan; and. The study employed qualitative approach to explore the challenges in the language assessment and the ensuing consequences. It has become lingua France of the people of the world. Cracking the code, Mark Henderson, Edward Reis and Alison Spice 9. English is also a career languageas man… Being able to understand the language makes it possible for people to live together in love and understanding. W. Case study on the evaluation of the English Language Centre. Even when we step into the job market, the first impression which any individual can make on others is his proficiency of english language. This study investigated the types, the functions, and the forms of speech acts The If we agree, through debate and discussion at local and national, levels, that literacy in English is vital for individual and national development, then, it must have high priority on the list of educational reforms for any go, not to teach English. Eight autumns in Hanoi, Patricia A. Denham 16. The majority of, people in Pakistan also subscribe to the view that English is the tool for individual, arguments put forward for using the mother tongue for economic dev. Grammar-translation Based on data and experts’ views, study concludes that English language stands foreign to sociocultural ecologies of most children which results in several disadvantages – incomprehension of subject material, rote learning, reduced creativity/critical thinking, and parents’ disengagement from the teaching/learning processes. This study aimed to develop a scale to enable the English language teaching practitioners to explore if the non-elite schools successfully fulfilled this claim. Several research studies have reported that assessment at higher education institutions for English language courses in Pakistan are deficient. All the interviews were analysed through thematic analysis technique and the views of teachers were confirmed by observing their classes for two days. repertory in which all linguistic abilities have a place. It was concluded that the need to provide enhanced teaching-learning facilities in, public sector universities cannot be over-emphasised, particularly in terms of the, huge demand for English in the employment market (Mansoor et al. In Pakistan, Cameroon and Bangladesh English as a teaching medium is mainly limited to urban areas and private schools. This official rhetoric, of providing ‘equal’ opportunities for learning of English as a potential tool to level, differences among the social classes, without a study of current pro, teachers’ ability to teach English effectively, does not match the o, education policy in Pakistan. Each of these issues will be discussed briefly in this section. Since learners use smartphones, free online resources are easily accessible. The purpose of this book is to examine the claims that have been made for the importance of English in development, to point out where these claims do not appear to be justified, to consider whether the pursuit of English in the name of development carries with it any dangers, to identify those areas where English really does appear to have a useful role to play, and to formulate recommendations. If yes, how can w, In order to achieve our goal of Education for All, whose language should be, An early version of this chapter was presented at the 7th International, This was a follow-up study focusing on selected cases identified for in-depth, The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is 57 per cent, according to the Economic, In response to this popular demand for English, the number of so-called, We need to remember that higher education in Pakistan, particularly in public, This section is based on a case study reported in Shamim 2006 and discussed. the space which had been allocated earlier to the Centre. and Development, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 13-15 1999, 3-22. Furthermore, Tanzania and South Africa. (The two streams of education in Pakistan have alr, Figure 1: Students’ family income (in Pakistani rupees) and proficiency in English, (most recent public examination scores) adapted fr, Similarly, in students’ assessment of their curr, academic domain, the upper group was about twice as heavily repr, categories of ‘good’ and ‘excellent’ compar, Hence, there seems to be a positive relationship betw, economic status and their proficiency in English, probably due to the difference, in opportunities available outside the classroom in the home and community for, learning and using English. bilingual discourse is commonly used in the classroom (Shamim and Allen 2000; see also Cleghorn and Rollnick 2002 for similar findings from African classrooms). The second part of the report then lays out a proposed strategy for the development of English and English language teaching in Pakistan. As the demand for, English and the educational provision in sev, similar to those in Pakistan, it is hoped that the study findings and the resultant, policy recommendations will be of benefit to language-in-development work, In Pakistan there has been a lack of systematic analysis, debate and dialogue about, the need for English. Modifications were made to the questionnaire in light of the target population's culture and language. Unpublished MEd dissertation, School of Education, University of Leeds, UK. Data were collected through observation in the tenth grade classes in four different types of schools, and through interviews of the administrators, teachers, and students. (Coleman 20, language in development, where English is view, language as development, with English being taught ‘as an end in itself’, language for development, where ‘English is used as a tool for other domains of, language of development, ‘the discourses that construct the ways in which. 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