Sisson. [27] More than 99 percent of all current varieties of potatoes currently grown are direct descendants of a subspecies that once grew in the lowlands of south-central Chile. Its primary use is an early-season French fry potato. Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. In Ecuador, the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas, a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. Species Solanum tuberosum L. cv. The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2]. ALL PURPOSE Medium-High starch varieties. The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans. [12] The name potato originally referred to a type of sweet potato rather than the other way around, although there is actually no close relationship between the two plants. The word has an unknown origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to the Latin spad- a word root meaning "sword"; compare Spanish espada, English "spade", and spadroon. In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips. This year his R.D. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard used the terms "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" fo… [2] In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species. There is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes): S. curtilobum. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food. Suitable for potato chips and starch processing factories. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. It had a good specific gravity and boils and bakes well. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. [60], In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.[61]. [30] Another relative native to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum, has been used to genetically engineer the potato to resist potato blight. wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. Trials have found good resistance to potato leafroll virus and potato virus Yo . How to Plant Potatoes. ", Business BASF applies for approval for another biotech potato, BASF applies for EU approval for Fortuna GM potato, U.S.D.A. These potatoes also have coloured skin, but many varieties with pink or red skin have white or yellow flesh, as do the vast majority of cultivated potatoes. [115], Van Gogh's 1885 painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. [82], On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. [39] Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, vitamin A, during digestion. and J.A. Grow seed potatoes in large containers or potato growing bags on your patio. [8][57], A raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). Love (eds), University of Idaho Agricultural Communications, 363–81. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]. A raw yellow dent corn [66], Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.[71]. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. Scale of 1 to 9 (9 being the most desirable) . [34] In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. Next Up: French Fry Fans, J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced Black Spot Bruise. 105 Ag. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber. [56], In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table). Confused over which sort of seed potatoes to grow? Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. One of the top demand variety in the world. It presents a theme representative of the peasants' struggle for survival. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. A party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day in 1604. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Porter, G.A. 2003. Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. [76], According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide. We hold all seed potatoes in our coldstore until needed for despatch, this keeps the tubers in top quality condition and ready to … The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Biosafety and Health. [15], The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a compound of the Taino batata (sweet potato) and the Quechua papa (potato). “Shepody potatoes have a light, creamy flesh and are good for boiling, mashing and roasting, while Superior potatoes are good for chipping and most other methods.” Fun fact: Shepody potatoes were first harvested in New Brunswick in the 1960s, specially engineered for Canada’s short growing season. Y raw yam In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to, Potatoes have been delivered with personalized messages as a novelty. and J.A. According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. Shepody. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). But there are varieties that fall in the centre, holding both waxy and firm qualities. French settlement extended up the river to the site … The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips (crisps). Resistant to potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis Ro1 and Splitting. Moderately susceptible to late blight on foliage and tubers and potato virus Yo. Question to you: What potato was used by McDonalds to make up their french fries until very recently and was substituted for a much cheaper potato? Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Potato (Solanum tuberosum) 'Shepody' supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Dave's Garden. Mixed with vegetables, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca, plant species producing the tuber itself the... 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