Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fiber. In Nigeria, leaves of Corchorus olitorius are prepared in sticky soup called ewedu together with ingredients such as sweet potato, dried small fish or shrimp. This natural fibre earns a lot of foreign currency by its export and its various products. The main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Jute is a bast fibre obtained from the secondary phloem. Jute has the major export potential contributing to Rs.1, 000 to 1,200 crores annually to the India economy. Jute is a rainfed crop which is cultivated mainly in Bangladesh, India and Thailand which account for more than 90 percent of world production. Carlo Morelli and Valerie Wright. [4], In classical antiquity, Pliny recorded that jute plants were used as food in Ancient Egypt. Fertiliser Schedule : Response of jute to nitrogen is universal and improved varieties of olitorius are more responsive to nitrogen than capsularis. The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. Jute’s single largest use, however, is in sacks and bags, those of finer quality being called burlap, or hessian. The jute plant's fibers lie beneath the bark and surround the woody central part of the stem. It is an ingredient for stews, typically cooked with lamb or chicken. Jute plants clean the air by consuming large quantities of CO2, which is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles.[7]. Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. Jute is used in a wide variety of goods. Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC. Jute, Hindi pat, also called allyott, either of two species of Corchorus plants—C. Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. Bangladesh Bank monogram, with three connected jute leaves at the base. C) Uses of Jute Fibre D) Cultivation of Jute E) Harvesting Jute F) Jute Fibre Extraction G) History of Jute Fibre H) Why Jute is an Environmentally Friendly Fibre A) Biology of Jute Jute is an annual crop grown mainly in India and Bangladesh in the fertile Ganges Delta. The latter process involves carding, drawing, roving, and spinning to separate the individual fibre filaments; arrange them in parallel order; blend them for uniformity of colour, strength, and quality; and twist them into strong yarns. Jute requires 5–8 cm (2–3 in) of rainfall weekly, and more during the sowing time. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more. It was also considered “the wonder crop,” until synthetic fibres entered the market and quickly replaced it. If jute is cut before then, the fibre is weak; if left until the seed is ripe, the fibre is strong but is coarser and lacks the characteristic lustre. The jute plant’s fibres lie beneath the bark and surround the woody central part of the stem. Which among the following is a fibre crop? It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The crop production related data from the jute field were collected for determination of ETs of D. casignetum (BHC) on jute. Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific mainly use jute for its fiber. Jute fabric is a type of textile fiber made from the jute plant. Jute is an amazing fibre – it’s incredibly sustainable, it’s affordable, it’s fast-drying and it’s breathable. Raw jute plays an important role in the country’s economy. Jute, and mesta are the major cash crops of Bangladesh. Crop Calendar for Jute and Allied Fibres 2013 Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, Barrackpore, Kolkata, 700120 Page 2 3. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. But it A great advantage of jute fibre is that, it is environment friendly natural fibre. Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Consequently, such fibres have long been used for textiles and rope making. The bast fibre is obtained from C. capsularis, a species with round pods which is grown in lowland areas subject to inundation. The jute industry is reeling under the crisis caused by the shutdown of Jute mills. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The fibre strands nearest the bark generally run the full length of the stem. Jute is a golden fibre as well as a major cash crop of Bangladesh. Jute … It is also called the "golden fiber" due to its versatile nature.[10]. But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water. d. For fibre purpose – jute is harvest before flowering . F) Jute Fibre Extraction On average, jute yields four times more fibre per acre than flax. All these problems faced by the Jute industry in India necessitates the Golden Fibre Revolution to enhance the value of India’s Golden Fibre. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres and considered second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibres. Once, jute fibre was widely known as the "golden fibre" or cash-crop of Bangladesh because of it's quality and demand. To protect the Jute industry, parliament enacted the Jute Packaging Mandatory Act, 1987. Raw jute was originally considered as a source of raw material for packaging industries only. The bast fibre is obtained from C. capsularis, a species with round pods which is grown in lowland areas subject to inundation. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Jute fibers are detrimental to the abrasive wear resistance of PP which exhibits a far greater energy to fracture and can thus accommodate plastic strain generated under the abrasive conditions to a greater extent. But it Jute is a vegetable fibre, mostly grown in tropical countries like India and Bangladesh. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres used for packaging, textiles, and agricultural sectors. They are composed of cellulose and lignin. Jute is a renewable resource with a high production per hectare. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. It is mainly cultivated in the eastern part of India and Bangladesh. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Another diversified jute product is geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is mainly cultivated in the eastern part of India and Bangladesh. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. After India was partitioned (1947), much of the jute-producing land remained in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), where new processing facilities were built. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. Jute produces top quality yarn, fabric, and sacks. "A New Method to Determine the Proportion of Jute in a Jute/Cotton Blend". Jute Cultivation in India: Conditions, Method, Production and Distribution! Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and construction fabric manufacturing industry. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus Corchorus, which is in the mallow family Malvaceae. Jute is an important natural fibre crop in India next to cotton. Jute is an amazing fibre – it’s incredibly sustainable, it’s affordable, it’s fast-drying and it’s breathable. capsularis, or white jute, and C. olitorius, including both tossa and daisee varieties—belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and their fibre. No. Read More. Burlap bags are used to ship and store grain, fruits and vegetables, flour, sugar, animal feeds, and other agricultural commodities. The weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, and spun cotton yarns as well. Among these are espadrilles, soft sweaters and cardigans, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, geotextiles, composites, and more. Jute Cultivation in India: Conditions, Method, Production and Distribution! Jute is one of the most important cash crops of eastern India. Drainage : Although white jute can withstand wa-terlogging to some extent, tossa jute cannot. It is a rain-fed crop which is cultivated without the need of any chemical fertilizer or pesticides. Jute dicotyledenous fibre-yielding plant of the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. After the retting process, stripping begins; women and children usually do this job. The crop is ready for harvesting when the flowers begin to fade. #Jute is an incredible fibre: #sustainable, affordable, fast … Uses: Can be used to manufacture … The jute fibre is a ligno-cellulose fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. (a) Single crop (b) Large area (c) Produce raw material for industries (d) All of the above (d) All of the above 24. The model covers 27 countries and regions and consists of estimated behavioural equations for the area and yield per ha of jute, as well as for demand, exports and imports of jute fibre and jute products. It is a biodegradable and eco-friendly fibre crop. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. Cotton provides the basic raw material to cotton textile industry. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. The jute plant needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. British jute barons grew rich by processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential. Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu, and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. Wherever bulky, strong fabrics and twines resistant to stretching are required, jute is widely used because of its low cost. c. Varieties: JRC-321 (Sonali), JRC-212 (Sabuj sona), JRC 7447 (Shyamli), D154, Hybrid C (Padma), KC1 (joydev) etc. Raw jute was originally considered as a … Likewise, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves in a soup they call pala bi. An olitorius jute crop producing 3 t ha-1 of dry fibre absorbs 111 kg N, 64 kg P 2 O 5. The cook cuts jute leaves into shreds and adds them to the soup, which normally also contains ingredients such as meat or fish, pepper, onions, and spices. Omissions? Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. As political tension rose between India and Paksitan, the latter felt the need to setup their own jute industry. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24 deg C to 37 deg C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. Jute fibre is a long, soft, shiny fibre that can be … A: There is no problem in producing jute seeds in conventional jute fibre producing areas except some areas of Assam where rainfall is excessively high (>2000 mm). The future of jute as a golden fibre and cash crop is obviously bright and the general masses must take more active interest to promote such a harmless and environmentally friendly crop. Burlap is made from jute. Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is a variety thought native to South Asia. Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. Tomlinson, Jim. Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. The production is concentrated in India and Bangladesh. "Properties of Jute". Jute comes from a vegetable, which is derived from the plant family Sparrmanniaceae. Cotton and jute are the two most important fibre crops of India. Jute plants clean the air by consuming large quantities of CO2, which is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. It has a great demand because of the cheapness, softness, strength, length, lustre and uniformity of its fibre. The possibilities of this carbon-neutral crop are limited only by imagination, but its potential still goes untapped. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. The fibres are held together by gummy materials; these must be softened, dissolved, and washed away to allow extraction of the fibres from the stem, a process accomplished by steeping the stems in water, or retting. Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. After the retting process, stripping begins. Let’s take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it’s so eco-friendly. Let's take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it's so eco-friendly. Next to cotton, jute is the second important fibre crop. Jute is rightly called the second important fibre crop of India or the golden fibre. Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. Jute is very fast growing reaching a height of up to 4.5 meters in a period of 5 months. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Along with a closely related species called roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), the two species account for one-third of the world production of soft fibres used for packaging. Jute mats and mattings with 5/6 mts width and of continuous length are easily being woven in southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves, like bouclé, Panama, herringbone, etc. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Fibre from C. olitorius, an upland species with long pods, is but little inferior. Coir, pineapple leaf fibre, banana stem fibre, and kapok fibre are used for different purposes. On a smaller scale, Thailand, Myanmar, Pakistan, … Moreover, non-host crops like rice, wheat, mustard etc. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–13 feet) long. "Green Fibers". For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal, precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. If jute is not grown sustainably by following basic practices like crop rotation, this crop could hurt the surrounding soil. Most varieties grow best in well-drained, sandy loam and require warm, humid climates with an average monthly rainfall of at least 3 to 4 inches (7.5 to 10 cm) during the growing season. Corchous olitorius leaves are used to make mulukhiya, sometimes considered the Egyptian national dish, but consumed in Cyprus and other Middle Eastern countries as well. Jute is rightly called the second important fibre crop of India or the golden fibre. Jute is a parenchymatus fibre. The draft genome of jute (Corchorus olitorius) was completed.[14]. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. National Emblem of Bangladesh. [15], Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Production is concentrated mostly in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Dyeing of Jute Fabric with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower". It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called the Golden Fibre. These plants are native to the Indian subcontinent and are grown throughout the year. 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